MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state free-precession (SSFP), are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels.
The purpose of this article is to provide a practical approach for radiologists and clinicians to fetal MRI performance and interpretation by adhering to guidelines. Fetal MRI technique, including recent advances, is discussed. The normal developing anatomy of the fetus and pregnancy structures is described to contrast with wide spectrum of abnormalities. Fetal MR appearance is demonstrated using different sequences. The current and future anticipated role of fetal MRI in supporting prenatal counseling, fetal therapy, and research studies are highlighted.
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Although pulmonary medicine only began to evolve as a medical specialty in the 1950s, William Welch and William Osler founded the ‘parent’ organization of the American Thoracic Society, the National Association.